Fordmods Logo

OIL doco 

 

Page 2 of 2 [ 23 posts ] Go to page Previous  1, 2

 
Posted: Tue Mar 28, 2006 5:53 pm 
Getting Side Ways
Offline

Age: 40

Posts: 2015

Joined: 9th Mar 2005

Gallery: 4 images

Ride: Territory TX AWD & AUII XLS EGAS

Location: East Kurrajong
NSW, Australia

Grades of motor oil

Single-grade motor oil
The Society of Automotive Engineers, usually abbreviated as SAE, has established a numerical code system for grading motor oils according to their kinematic viscosity. For single-grade oils, the kinematic viscosity is measured at a reference temperature of 100 °C (212 °F) in units of mm²/s or the equivalent older non-SI units, centistokes (abbreviated cSt). Based on the range of viscosity the oil falls in at that temperature, the oil is graded as an SAE number 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, or 60. The higher the viscosity, the higher the SAE grade number is. These numbers are often referred to as the weight of a motor oil. The reference temperature is meant to approximate the operating temperature to which motor oil is exposed in an engine.

The viscosity of single-grade oil derived from petroleum unimproved with additives changes considerably with temperature. As the temperature increases, the viscosity of the oil decreases logarithmically in a relatively predictable manner. On single-grade oils, viscosity testing can be done at cold winter (W) temperature (as well as checking minimum viscosity at 100 °C or 212 °F) to grade an oil as SAE number 0W, 5W, 10W, 15W, 20W, or 25W. A single-grade oil graded at the hot temperature is expected to test into the corresponding grade at the winter temperature; i.e. a 10 grade oil should correspond to a 10W oil. For some applications, such as when the temperature ranges in use are not very wide, single-grade motor oil is satisfactory; for example, lawn mower engines.

Multi-grade motor oil
The temperature range the oil is exposed to in most vehicles can be wide, ranging from cold ambient temperatures in the winter before the vehicle is started up to hot operating temperatures when the vehicle is fully warmed up in hot summer weather. The difference in viscosities for any single-grade oil is too large between the extremes of temperature. To bring the difference in viscosities closer together, special polymer additives called viscosity index improvers are added to the oil. These additives make the oil a multi-grade motor oil. The viscosity of a multi-grade oil still varies logarithmically with temperature, but the slope representing the change is lessened. This slope representing the change with temperature depends on the nature and amount of the additives to the base oil.

The API/SAE designation for multi-grade oils includes two grade numbers; for example, 10W-30 designates a common multi-grade oil. The first number associated with the W is not rated at any single temperature. The "10W" means that this oil can be pumped by your engine as cold as a single-grade 10 weight oil can be pumped. "5W" can be pumped at a lower temperature than "10W". The second number, 30, means that the viscosity of this multi-grade oil at 100°C (212°F) operating temperature corresponds to the viscosity of a single-grade 30 oil at same temperature. The governing SAE standard is called SAE J300. The motor oil grade and viscosity to be used in a given vehicle is specified by the manufacturer of the vehicle.

 

_________________

04 Territory TX AWD - Winter White - optioned up
06 Falcon BFII XLS ute EGAS - Winter White - EGA-54D Version 2

Top
 Profile  
 
 
Posted: Tue Mar 28, 2006 5:56 pm 
Getting Side Ways
Offline

Age: 40

Posts: 2015

Joined: 9th Mar 2005

Gallery: 4 images

Ride: Territory TX AWD & AUII XLS EGAS

Location: East Kurrajong
NSW, Australia


American Petroleum Institute
Motor oil used for vehicle engines is commonly called engine oil in American Petroleum Institute (API) documentation. Engine oil is used for the lubrication, cooling, and cleaning of internal combustion engines. Motor oil may be composed of a lubricant base stock only in the case of non-detergent oil, or a lubricant base stock plus additives to improve the oil's detergency, extreme pressure performance, and ability to inhibit corrosion of engine parts. Lubricant base stocks are categorized into five groups by the API. Groups I are composed of fractionally distilled petroleum normally via solvent extration process to improve certain properties such as anti-oxidation. Group II base stock is composed of fractionally distilled petroleum with much lower impurites than Group I, the refining process is more severe which can remove more impurities than solvent extraction. This refining process is called hydrocracking or hydrotreating. Group III base stock has similar characteristics to Group II but with higher viscosity index, produced by further process Group II or slax wax, from dewaxing process, by hydroisomerization. Group IV base stock is polyalphaolefins (PAOs). Group V is a catch all group for other synthetic and mineral base stocks. Examples of group V include polyol esters, polyalkylene glycols (PAG oils), and perfluoropolyalkylethers (PFPAEs). Groups I, II, and III are conventionally referred to as mineral oils and groups IV and V as synthetic oils. However, some manufacturers (e.g., Castrol) have recently labeled their group III based oils as synthetic in the US.

Motor oils are further categorized by their API service class. The API service classes have two general classifications: S for Service (typical passenger cars and light trucks using gasoline engines) and C for commercial applications (typical diesel equipment). The latest API service standard designation is SM for gasoline engines. The SM standard refers to a group of laboratory and engine tests, including the latest series for control of high-temperature deposits. Current API service categories include SM, SL and SJ for gasoline engines. All previous service designations are obsolete. There are six diesel engine service designations which are current: CI-4, CH-4, CG-4, CF-4, CF-2, and CF. All others are obsolete. It is possible for an oil to conform to both the gasoline and diesel standards. Engine oil which has been tested and meets the API standards has the API starburst symbol with the service designation on containers sold to oil users.

The International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) also has standards for motor oil. Their latest standard, GF-4 was approved in 2004.

 

_________________

04 Territory TX AWD - Winter White - optioned up
06 Falcon BFII XLS ute EGAS - Winter White - EGA-54D Version 2

Top
 Profile  
 
 
Posted: Tue Mar 28, 2006 5:57 pm 
Getting Side Ways
Offline

Age: 40

Posts: 2015

Joined: 9th Mar 2005

Gallery: 4 images

Ride: Territory TX AWD & AUII XLS EGAS

Location: East Kurrajong
NSW, Australia


Other additives
In addition to the viscosity index improvers, motor oil manufacturers often include other additives such as detergents and dispersants to help keep the engine clean by minimizing sludge buildup, corrosion inhibitors, and alkaline additives to neutralize acidic oxidation products of the oil. Most commercial oils have a minimal amount of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate as an anti-wear additive to protect contacting metal surfaces with zinc and other compounds in case of metal to metal contact. The quantity of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate is limited to minimize adverse effect on catalytic converters.

There are other additives available commercially which can be added to the oil by the user for purported additional benefit. Some of these additives include:

Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate additives are available to consumers for additional protection under extreme-pressure conditions or in heavy duty performance situations.
In the 1980s and 1990s, additives with suspended PTFE particles were available to consumers to increase motor oil's ability to coat and protect metal surfaces. There is controversy as to the actual effectiveness of these products as they can solidify and clog the oil filters.
Some consumer additives are basically detergents to clean and dissolve sludge and/or carbon deposits.
Some molybdenum-containing additives to lubricating oils are claimed to reduce friction, bond to metal, or have anti-wear properties.
Various other extreme-pressure additives and antiwear additives

 

_________________

04 Territory TX AWD - Winter White - optioned up
06 Falcon BFII XLS ute EGAS - Winter White - EGA-54D Version 2

Top
 Profile  
 
 
Posted: Tue Mar 28, 2006 6:00 pm 
Getting Side Ways
Offline

Age: 40

Posts: 2015

Joined: 9th Mar 2005

Gallery: 4 images

Ride: Territory TX AWD & AUII XLS EGAS

Location: East Kurrajong
NSW, Australia


Mineral or synthetic?
Mineral oils are based on oil that comes from dear old Mother Earth which has been refined. Synthetic oils are entirely concocted by chemists wearing white lab coats in oil company laboratories. For more info, see the section on synthetics further down the page. The only other type is semi-synthetic, sometimes called premium, which is a blend of the two. It is safe to mix the different types, but it's wiser to switch completely to a new type rather than mixing.

A couple of words of warning:

If you've been driving around with mineral oil in your engine for years, don't switch to synthetic oil without preparation. Synthetic oils have been known to dislodge the baked-on deposits from mineral oils and leave them floating around your engine - not good. I learned this lesson the hard way! It's wise to use a flushing oil first.
If you do decide to change, only go up the scale. If you've been running around on synthetic, don't change down to a mineral-based oil - your engine might not be able to cope with the degradation in lubrication. Consequently, if you've been using mineral oil, try a semi or a full synthetic oil. By degradation, I'm speaking of the wear tolerances that an engine develops based on the oil that it's using. Thicker mineral oils mean thicker layers of oil coating the moving parts (by microns though). Switching to a thinner synthetic oil can cause piston rings to leak and in some very rare cases, piston slap or crank vibration.
Gaskets and seals! With the makeup of synthetic oils being different from mineral oils, mineral-oil-soaked gaskets and seals have been known to leak when exposed to synthetic oils. Perhaps not that common an occurrence, but worth bearing in mind nevertheless.
Synthetics
Despite their name, most synthetic derived motor oils (ie Mobil 1, Castrol Formula RS etc ) are actually derived from mineral oils - they are mostly Polyalphaolifins and these come from the purest part of the mineral oil refraction process, the gas. PAO oils will mix with normal mineral oils which means Joe public can add synthetic to his mineral, or mineral to his synthetic without his car engine seizing up. The most stable bases are polyol-ester (not polyester, you fool). When I say 'stable' I mean 'less likely to react adversely with other compounds.' Synthetic oil bases tend not to contain reactive carbon atoms for this reason. Reactive carbon has a tendency to combine with oxygen creating an acid. As you can imagine, in an oil, this would be A Bad Thing. So think of synthetic oils as custom-built oils. They're designed to do the job efficiently but without any of the excess baggage that can accompany mineral based oils.

Pure synthetics
Pure synthetic oils (polyalkyleneglycol) are the types used almost exclusively within the industrial sector in polyglycol gearbox oils for heavily loaded gearboxes. These are typically concocted by intelligent blokes in white lab coats. These chaps break apart the molecules that make up a variety of substances, like vegetable and animal oils, and then recombine the individual atoms that make up those molecules to build new, synthetic molecules. This process allows the chemists to actually "fine tune" the molecules as they build them. Clever stuff. But Polyglycols don't mix with normal mineral oils.

Flushing oils
These are special compound oils that are very, very thin. They almost have the consistency of tap water when cold as well as hot. Typically they are 0W/20 oils. Don't ever drive with these oils in the engine - it won't last. Their purpose is for cleaning out all the gunk which builds up inside an engine. Note that Mobil1 0W40 is okay, because the '40' denotes that it's actually thick enough at temperature to work. 0W20 just doesn't get that viscous! To use them, drain your engine of all it's oil, but leave the old oil filter in place. Next fill it up with flushing oil and run it at a fast idle for about 20 minutes. Finally, drain all this off (and marvel at the crap that comes out with it), replace the oil filter, refill with a good synthetic oil and voila! Clean engine.
Of course, like most things nowadays, there's a condition attached when using flushing oils. In an old engine you really don't want to remove all the deposits. Some of these deposits help seal rings, lifters and even some of the flanges between the heads, covers, pan and the block, where the gaskets are thin. I have heard of engines with over 280,000km that worked fine, but when flushed it failed in a month because the blow-by past the scraper ring(now really clean)contaminated the oil and screwed the rod bearings.

 

_________________

04 Territory TX AWD - Winter White - optioned up
06 Falcon BFII XLS ute EGAS - Winter White - EGA-54D Version 2

Top
 Profile  
 
 
Posted: Tue Apr 04, 2006 8:53 pm 
Getting Side Ways
Offline
User avatar

Age: 34

Posts: 2351

Joined: 11th Nov 2004

Gallery: 30 images

Ride: Blown XR8

Location: Melbourne
VIC, Australia

A Very good read there!
BTW: Don't use that Mobil Ultra 20-50 crap either, as soon as i did, the engine started tapping. Back to some 15-40 Gulf Western stuff and its beautiful. Never again.
Top
 Profile  
 
 
Posted: Thu Apr 06, 2006 9:44 am 
Getting Side Ways
Offline

Age: 40

Posts: 2015

Joined: 9th Mar 2005

Gallery: 4 images

Ride: Territory TX AWD & AUII XLS EGAS

Location: East Kurrajong
NSW, Australia

I just found a heap of info on the net ... and copy and pasted it .... hee hee

Google is your friend.

There's a guy in www.fordforums.com.au that has been doing a regular oil analysis on his Territory and has been posting the details everytime he does an oil change .... his old oil gets sent to a laba nd they send his the results of what his oil is like.

Interesting read indeed of what happens to the oil as it slowly breaks down over time in a petrol engine.

 

_________________

04 Territory TX AWD - Winter White - optioned up
06 Falcon BFII XLS ute EGAS - Winter White - EGA-54D Version 2

Top
 Profile  
 
 
Posted: Tue May 02, 2006 11:50 am 
Parts Gopher
Offline

Posts: 59

Joined: 1st May 2006

Location: brisbane
QLD, Australia

is there any problems with using castrol magnatec in a 1993 4.0L????????
if i remember right its like a 10/40
or something liek that
Top
 Profile  
 
 
Posted: Tue Sep 12, 2006 9:55 pm 
Stock as a Rock
Offline

Age: 30

Posts: 157

Joined: 9th Feb 2006

Ride: EF Fairmont

Location: Perth
WA, Australia

Don't know if it was in the posts earlier by Mechan1k, but SAE = Society of American Engineers (99% sure I remember correctly).
It's pretty much just a classification society that nominates grades for different viscosity oils. Also Viscosity isn't the resistance to pouring, it's the resistance to flow, and the more viscous or resistant to flowing the oil is, the higher the number.
The common grade oils for Falcon's such as SAE 20W-50 mean that it has a viscosity rating of 20W (less viscous) when cold (W = winter) and 50 when the oil is hot and working.

Oil itself doesn't really break down so much as the detergents in it break down scum build-up and the oil gets contaminated, but it's pretty much the same thing. Not doing a point-and-laugh haha-you're-wrong thing, just a few slight corrections to increase the accuracy of the technical documents :P

 

_________________

-- Tympanic Membrane Desecration --

Top
 Profile  
 
Display posts from previous:
Sort by  
 Page 2 of 2  [ 23 posts ]  Go to page Previous  1, 2

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 4 guests


You cannot post new topics in this forum
You cannot reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum
You cannot post attachments in this forum

 

 

It is currently Sun Dec 17, 2017 9:45 pm All times are UTC + 11 hours

 

 

(c)2014 Total Web Solutions Australia - Australian Web Hosting and Domain Names